HMI: Matters for Discussion

Background notes

1 Ten Good Schools
2 Classics in Comprehensive Schools
3 Modern Languages in Comprehensive Schools
4 Gifted Children in Middle and Comprehensive Secondary Schools
5 The Teaching of Ideas in Geography
6 Mixed Ability Work in Comprehensive Schools
7 The Education of Children in Hospitals for the Mentally Handicapped
8 Developments in the BEd Degree Course
9 Mathematics 5 to 11
10 Community Homes with Education
11 A View of the Curriculum
12 Modern Languages in Further Education
13 Girls and Science
14 Mathematics in the Sixth Form
15 The New Teacher in School

Community Homes with Education

The complete document is presented in this single web page. You can scroll through it or use the following links to go straight to the various sections:

1 Introduction (page 1)
2 Scope of survey (2)
3 Admissions procedure (3)
4 Discharge (4)
5 Pupil characteristics and needs (5)
6 Accommodation and equipment (6)
7 Staffing (8)
8 Links between education and care staff (10)
9 Supporting services (11)
10 The teaching observed (13)
11 Examinations and record keeping (20)
12 Conclusions and recommendations (21)
Appendices (24)

The text of Community Homes with Education was prepared by Derek Gillard and uploaded on 30 October 2012.

Community Homes with Education
HMI Series: Matters for Discussion No. 10

London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office 1980
© Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

[title page]

Department of Education and Science

HMI Series: Matters for Discussion 10

Community Homes with

London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office

[page ii]

The publications in this series are intended to stimulate professional discussion. They are based on HM Inspectors' observation of work in educational institutions and present their thoughts on some of the issues involved. The views expressed are those of the authors and are not necessarily those of the Inspectorate as a whole or of the Department of Education and Science. It is hoped that they will promote debate at all levels so that they can be given due weight when educational developments are being assessed or planned. Nothing said is to be construed as implying Government commitment to the provision of additional resources.

© Crown copyright 1980
First published 1980

ISBN 0 11 270450 6

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1 Introduction

2 Scope of survey

3 Admissions procedure

4 Discharge

5 Pupil characteristics and needs

6 Accommodation and equipment

7 Staffing
Girls' CHEs8
Boys' CHEs8

8 Links between education and care staff

9 Supporting services
LEA support services11
In-service training11

10 The teaching observed
Individual subjects14
    Language and literacy14
    Art and craft16
    Social education16
    Physical education17
    Outdoor education18
Remedial work18
Other subjects of study19

11 Examinations and record keeping

12 Conclusions and recommendations
Detailed conclusions and 'recommendations22

1 Survey data24
2 Timetables32
3 Community homes with education - education management34

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In 1977 HM Inspectorate of Schools were invited by the Department of Health and Social Security, following interdepartmental discussions, to report on education in community homes with education on the premises.

A survey was carried out in 1978, and this report of its findings illustrates the challenging professional task upon which teachers are engaged in meeting the diverse educational needs of boys and girls in these establishments. It should also stimulate discussion on the issues concerning organisation, curriculum, and the need for increased cooperation between education and social services, to which reference is made in the text.

Community homes with education are by their nature inevitably isolated to some extent from the mainstream of education. Cooperation between services does, however, reduce the effects of that isolation, and it is hoped that the publication of this report will help to promote greater local cooperation to the benefit of children and their teachers in community homes with education.

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1 Introduction

Community homes were set up under the Children and Young Persons Act 1969 and the Personal Social Services Act 1970. For some children considerations of care, treatment and control require that their needs throughout the 24 hours should be met in establishments which have been designated as 'community homes with education on the premises' (CHEs). These are child-care establishments, the inspection of which is the responsibility of the Social Work Service Officers (SWSOs) of OHSS and the Welsh Office, but HMI have long been associated with inspections of the educational provision at the invitation of SWSOs.

The survey of community homes with education was undertaken by members of HM Inspectorate during the spring and summer terms of 1978. Each team of three or four inspectors spent several days (including preliminary visits) in each establishment. One inspector in each team was one of the members of the Inspectorate Committee on Education in Community Homes. The sample of community homes with education on the premises was selected by Social Work Service Officers from the 12 Regional Planning Committee areas in England and Wales in order to give as broad a picture of the CHE system as possible. HMI wish to acknowledge the help and cooperation received from Social Work Service Officers in the arrangements for this survey.

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2 Scope of the survey

The sample drawn included large and small CHEs, CHEs for boys and for girls (none was mixed), CHEs for younger and for older pupils, and CHEs situated in rural and in urban areas. The capacities of the 15 boys' CHEs ranged from a maximum of 105 to a minimum of 52 boys, and in the six girls' CHEs the maximum was 44 and the minimum 29. The numbers on roll at the time of the visits were in three cases equal to the capacity of each CHE, in one case over capacity and in the remainder from one to 30 under capacity. The approximate average length of stay in boys' CHEs ranged from fourteen months to two years and eleven months; in girls' CHEs from ten and a half months to two years.

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3 Admissions procedure

Admissions procedure differed considerably from one region to another. In Wales the Regional Planning Committee had standardised the assessment documents and aimed to incorporate reports from teachers and from other CHEs and assessment centres, although reports from previous secondary schools were not always included. It was reported from Wales that personal contact between teachers in CHEs and some secondary schools had proved helpful.

The majority of pupils admitted to CHEs come directly from regional or local authority observation and assessment centres, though some come from child guidance clinics. From the point of view of psychiatric, psychological and social work reports, records from observation and assessment centres were generally regarded in the CHEs as satisfactory, and in one instance meticulously thorough. However, educational information, with one notable exception where it was both extensive and useful, was far less detailed.

Documentation from pupils' previous schools was sometimes included in the information sent from observation and assessment centres but in many CHEs such information was not available. The difficulties in securing good liaison should not be underestimated: one CHE contained children from nineteen different local authorities, and the average number of sending authorities was ten (see Appendix I, Table 9).

The principals of CHEs stated that attempts to make contact with secondary schools met with varying degrees of success from 'most helpful' to 'no help at all' . Some CHEs relied on observation and assessment centre reports in the initial placing of pupils into education groups, but the majority carried out their own education testing programmes. In one establishment the placement of pupils in the education programme appeared to be generally haphazard, with the responsibility for placement lying with the deputy principal (not a teacher) who used medical and social criteria. However, in the majority ofCHEs pupils were allocated to ability groups based upon assessments of reading and mathematical ability, though in a few instances allocation was based on social compatibility or simply on the existence of a vacancy.

The most common age of entry appeared to be 14 to 15. In one CHE the average age of admission was, however, II years 9 months. Within the sample there were comparatively few children from ethnic minority groups and most of these were West Indians. In only one CHE were there more than six such pupils, though in another establishment the incidence had been as high as one-third of the total number (ie ten pupils).

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4 Discharge

Careers education was not seen to be given very high priority in the programme in most of the CHEs, even those for older children, and in some it was non-existent, though there were one or two interesting exceptions. For example, in one CHE a leavers' group, consisting of boys who were within six months of leaving, followed a one-term course which linked careers guidance with vocational work. The course also involved familiarising pupils with situations they were likely to meet in the adult world, for instance living in a flat and cooking meals, joint hiring of a television set.

In the leavers' course in another CHE much thought had been given to preparing pupils to enter the working world. The teacher responsible had used the relevant Schools Council materials as part of the course and had taken pupils on a series of visits. A good relationship existed between the CHE and the local careers officer, who claimed that, because their job expectations had been found to be realistic, its pupils were easier to place in employment than those from some other CHEs. The CHE's deliberate policy of developing social skills had also helped pupils to make a good impression at interviews. In another CHE good links had been developed with a further education establishment which provided linked courses.

All the CHEs had made arrangements with the local careers officers to interview pupils before their leaving dates, and information was passed on to the local careers officer in the pupil's own locality. Teachers were not always involved in final case conferences though they usually provided written information on educational progress. Where pupils were to return to ordinary schools in their own locality it was generally the responsibility of the pupils' own social workers to contact the schools. In one CHE where 65 per cent of the pupils were under school leaving age when they left, the head of education or a class teacher visited the school where admission was being sought, but even this effort was often not successful in securing a place.

Return to ordinary school was seen by the CHEs to be a difficult operation and was successfully arranged with only a small number of the pupils who were still of school age. Schools were reluctant to have pupils back, and once they had reached the age of 14, there was the added difficulty in some cases of placing them in examination courses. It was agreed by the staff of one CHE that return to school might well be facilitated if the pupils, accompanied by a member of the CHE teaching staff, visited the school to meet the class teacher as well as the head.

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5 Pupil characteristics and needs

Pupils in all CHEs may generally be said to suffer from the disadvantages associated with previous unsatisfactory relationships at home, in the local community and at school. In one girls' CHE five of the thirty pupils were receiving psychiatric help, and the incidence of health and behaviour problems, including poor sleep patterns, was said to be high. Three-quarters of the girls had absconded at one time or another: five were classed as regular absconders.

Another CHE received boys who had a wide range of problems. The incidence of emotional disturbance was high and in some cases very severe. Three pupils had come from psychiatric units. The establishment also contained several pupils in the ESN(M) range. The majority of the boys were reported to be as much as four years retarded in the basic subjects on entry.

In one girls' CHE, where there had been for some time a considerable incidence of violence and disruptive behaviour, attention had been given in an in-service training course to the management of such behaviour. This was followed by strenuous efforts by education and care staff to resolve the problems posed by outbursts of aggressive behaviour and obscene language that still occurred too frequently.

It is against this background of disadvantage that the provision of education in CHEs must be set. All the pupils need a period of stability, an opportunity to form relationships with caring adults and to come to terms with their own problems in an environment designed to help solve them. No education programme would be likely to succeed if it failed to take account of individual needs, and of the need to re-motivate pupils whose interest in formal learning had long since disappeared and whose attainments came nowhere near matching their abilities.

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6 Accommodation and equipment

The quality of the educational facilities varied considerably from one CHE to another. Of the girls' CHEs, two were provided with purpose-built education units which included specialist provision for such activities as needlework, typewriting, home economics, art and pottery. In another unit, which was said to be generously supported by the local authority, the equipment available for use included a wide range of audio visual aids. In yet another, despite a generous allowance, there was a serious shortage of English and mathematics materials and a complete lack of library facilities. Little use appeared to be made of these purpose-built units during the evenings because of their separation from the residential areas. The conversion of other accommodation to provide educational facilities in one girls' CHE was unsuccessful because of a combination of poor and unattractive furnishing and shortages of essential equipment. One purpose built CHE for girls made good use of the education block, which was in the main building, and particularly of the hall. This united the two areas and was used for gatherings of girls, care and education staff during the day and, in the evenings, of girls and care staff.

The extensive grounds and attractive surroundings of the CHEs situated in rural and semi-rural areas were not always regarded as a resource for such activities as environmental studies or as starting points for creative and mathematical activities. The boys' CHEs were more varied in their educational provision than the girls' , perhaps because there were more of them in the sample. Generally they offered a much wider range of opportunities, particularly, in respect of vocational training. The differences between provision in classrooms and workshops was marked in a number of boys' CHEs. For example, in one CHE the classrooms were generally unattractive, with poor display and poor equipment, whereas the workshops were well equipped and had a professional and workmanlike atmosphere. One purpose-built education unit appeared ill kept in every respect, in spite of its setting in attractive and well cared for grounds.

In a number of the boys' CHEs educational accommodation had been developed and extended over the years. It consisted partly of purpose-built classrooms and partly of other classrooms and workshops converted from outhouses and stables, which in some cases were cold and cheerless. While some of these CHEs had adequate and sometimes generous allowances for equipment, others suffered from severe shortages, and in some of them the dearth of books and practical materials resulted in an impoverished education programme.

Accommodation for physical education was often of a good standard, including both sports halls and gymnasia, swimming pools and playing fields, which enabled staff to offer a wide and varied programme of physical activities. In one CHE extensive use was made of the large acreage of grounds in which it stood for cross country running and the construction of nature trails.

Specialist laboratories were not provided, though the appointment of

[page 7]

specialist science teachers had led to the equipping of classrooms as laboratories in some of the boys' CHEs.

In one of the boys' CHEs the educational accommodation was extensive and, as well as satisfactory classroom provision in the main building, a range of outbuildings provided workshops, stables, greenhouses, a pottery, a photographic dark room and space for hobbies. There was also a fine library, a sports hall and an open air heated swimming pool. The specialist workshops were spacious and well equipped and each had a separate classroom for theoretical work. The grounds included playing fields, lakes for canoeing and sailing, camping grounds, well tended gardens, a zoo with small mammals and exotic birds, and grazing for horses and ponies.

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7 Staffing

Girls' CHEs

In one of the girls' CHEs the head teacher was directly responsible to the local education authority which provided the entire teaching resources. The head's qualifications included a diploma in the education of maladjusted children and she had had previous experience of teaching in an adjustment unit. Both the deputy and another teacher had additional qualifications in the teaching of handicapped children. All but one of the teachers in this CHE received a Scale 2 allowance. The staff were able to cover at least three important specialist areas: home economics, art/craft and specific learning difficulties.

In contrast, the staff in one of the remaining girls' CHEs had neither the qualifications nor the experience necessary for work in this field. Two CHEs claimed difficulty in attracting the right kind of staff. One CHE had been unable to recruit anyone to the post of deputy principal (education).

On the whole, the range of specialist teaching available in this sample of girls' CHEs was clearly inadequate, with a particular shortage of teachers for mathematics, science, music, drama and physical education.

Even where subject coverage appeared to be adequate, most of the teachers had received no specific training for work with disturbed girls, and none of them had undertaken specific in-service training for working with disadvantaged children. In at least one CHE the teaching staff did not hold formal meetings: in another, a meeting of the teaching staff was held once a week. In those CHEs where meetings did take place they were mainly concerned with management, organisation and the allocation of pupils to classes.

Boys' CHEs

In some boys' CHEs the curriculum offered appeared to be inadequate, and of only two could it be said that the range of subjects was wide and the overall quality of the teaching of a high order. The best of the boys' CHEs 'provided well balanced teaching teams offering a fair measure of experience and expertise in this field of education. In a number of CHEs a wide gap existed in terms of experience and skills between teachers in the classrooms and those in the trade and technical departments. For example in one CHE all the staff in the departments were qualified and highly experienced in their fields, whereas all the classroom teachers, of whom three were physical education (PE) specialists, were young. Two were in their first year of teaching. The field appeared to attract male physical education teachers, for in anotherCHE five of the staff were PE specialists. Only one CHE lacked adequate PE coverage.

One CHE provided a wide coverage of subject areas but some of the advantages of this were lost because of a lack of co-ordination. In the boys' CHEs, teaching staff meetings varied from weekly to monthly, or even termly, and were usually concerned with organisational matters and with individual pupils. In only one establishment was the weekly staff meeting at all concerned with curricular matters, though the Principal of the establishment acknowledged that his teachers had insufficient time,

[page 9]

because of their teaching and care commitments, for the detailed work required in thorough curricular development.

In general the turnover of teaching staff in boys' CHEs appeared to be at a lower rate than in girls' establishments, which had more difficulty in attracting recruits of the right calibre. The areas of major weakness in boys' CHEs appeared to be in the provision of qualified and experienced remedial teachers and teachers of science, mathematics, music and drama.

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8 Links between education and care staff

Of the girls' CHEs, only three had taken positive steps to encourage liaison between teaching and care staff. In one establishment this took the form of regular group meetings when teachers and care staff exchanged information about the girls. Staff from both sides accompanied groups of girls when they went out on visits. Another girls' CHE had established personal counselling roles for three of the teachers and others had been linked with house units for group meetings. An unusual situation obtained in one CHE where the high quality of care permeated the establishment and favourably influenced the relationships between teachers and taught in the classrooms.

In many boys' CHEs staff stated that liaison between teachers and the residential care side was maintained by purely informal contacts. In the majority of boys' CHEs teachers undertook the maximum fifteen hours of extraneous duties and this commitment often enriched the overall provision. The effect in one establishment of teacher or instructor and care staff sharing and contributing to the many voluntary clubs and activities was quite marked. Expertise across the whole of the staff was effectively used and the boys responded well to the informal relationships which developed.

The main links in two establishments were made through the attachment of teachers to particular house units for their extraneous duties. There was evidence of considerable initiative, particularly in the development of physical activities. In one CHE a house father, with teacher support, was successfully endeavouring to develop group discussions with boys in his unit. In one institution the exceptional number of extra-curricular activities offered to the boys enabled care and education staff to be collectively involved in the boys' total programme. The achievement of a harmonious working arrangement between the various disciplines engaged in the total treatment programme appeared to be related to the quality of the leadership. This was seen to be the case in one CHE where the two deputies both had care and teaching commitments and where four of the teachers were designated teacher/counsellors - the counsellor role matching that of a similar number of care staff with the same designation.

Excellent personal relationships appeared to exist in one CHE and the teachers, because of their commitment to extraneous duties, were said to be fully aware of the boys' social and emotional problems, although even here the care staff were not informed about the nature of the boys' educational problems.

Instances of tension between the two disciplines were few, though in a number of CHEs the two groups were not closely related. The care staff in one establishment were seen to be attempting to develop individual care programmes appropriate to each boy but because these were not linked to the educational objectives, the opportunity to integrate both care and educational philosophies was lost.

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9 Supporting services

LEA support services

CHEs varied in the extent to which they made use of LEA support services. In some instances such help was not sought and in others LEA's seemed unaware of the need. Four of the six girls' CHEs received no support from the LEA advisory services. However in one case, following an initial visit two years earlier from a remedial adviser, no help had been requested. Two establishments received visits from the special education advisers on request and these were said to be helpful. Other specialist advisers were cooperative and helpful, but some were hesitant to visit because of their lack of experience of the type of work in CHEs. Only two of the establishments received regular visits from educational psychologists but four received psychiatric help. The role of the psychiatrist was clearly stated by one consultant as being that of a consultant to the teachers and care staff, though in special cases girls would be interviewed.

Contact with social workers was minimal and often confined only to meetings at case conferences.

More than half the boys' CHEs received no support from LEA advisory services and just under half received no help from the psychological services. Support from the psychiatrists was, again, somewhat more frequent than that from the psychologists. It must be pointed (Jut that in some cases LEA support services were available but had not been sought by CHEs. One establishment benefited from the link it had made with the LEA via the social services department it also had its own full-time educational psychologist provided by the LEA.

Teachers' contacts with social workers in the boys' CHEs were either informal or connected with attendance at case conferences, and in some CHEs contacts were minimal and infrequent. In only one CHE was the contact with the field social worker reported to be good. Here the social worker played a clear role in settling boys back into school and rehabilitating them in their home environment.

In-service training

Local Education Authority in-service courses were not used at all by the majority of the teachers in girls' CHEs. Nearly half the boys' CHEs did not use the in-service courses provided by LEAs and little use appeared to have been made of teachers' centres. Factors contributing to this state of affairs may have been the demands of residential extraneous duties, lack of information from LEAs and the inappropriateness of the courses offered to education in CHEs.

One notable exception was a CHE where the teachers had attended LEA courses which were particularly relevant to them, including those on science teaching for remedial pupils, the Schools Council careers guidance project, a remedial reading scheme and individual counselling skills.

It was interesting to note that for a variety of reasons many teachers appeared not to have made use of LEA in-service training opportunities. However, some forty teachers (see Appendix I, Table II) had attended courses of one term or more. These long courses were often educationally

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appropriate to the work done in CHEs and included Diploma and Certificate Courses in the education of maladjusted and/or slow learning pupils as well as long courses on educational counselling and the rehabilitation of young people.

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10 The teaching observed

Many factors influenced the state of the curriculum, including the size of the establishment, the number, qualifications and experience of the teaching staff and the amount of their commitment to residential care duties, the organisation of teaching time and the balance of academic, vocational and recreative activities. The total framework of an establishment had a particular influence on the education programme, especially in the girls' CHEs (possibly because of their smaller size).

A consistency of approach by all the staff was necessary in order to provide a stable environment and a framework within which to operate. Where this was not the case the education programme became haphazard. For example, in one girls' CHE very little appeared to be taking place in the classrooms; what was done was often determined by the pupils and carried out with minimaJ commitment, enthusiasm and effort on their part, and the level of demands made by the staff was low. With the exception of remedial work the education programme in this CHE appeared to be fragmented, irrelevant, non-progressive and undemanding; no attempt was made to provide realistic starting points linked with the environment, enthusiasms, interests, or activities of the pupils.

However, even where stable conditions existed it was frequently observed that insufficient use was made of the surrounding environment as a starting point for the education programme and many opportunities to relate experiences to the classroom work were missed.

In some of the boys' CHEs the long established pattern of trade departments could obviously result in boys being allocated to meet the requirements of the system rather than to meet their individual needs, although there was ample evidence that most CHEs took a great deal of trouble to test pupils thoroughly on arrival and to place them in appropriate groups. Systematic record keeping by teachers in one CHE enabled a pupil's work to be continuously monitored and a steady progression maintained.

There are particular difficulties in constructing educational timetables in CHEs, involving curriculum balance, continuity and cohesion. Education staff need to give careful thought to the construction of the timetable if these difficulties are to be kept to a minimum. (Examples of actual timetables from a boys' and from a girls' CHE are attached as Appendix 2). One CHE constituted an extreme case of fragmentation of the curriculum because of organisational arrangements. Here the establishment operated in three separate sections: the classroom work, the trade departments and the intensive care unit. No Jinks could be discovered between these areas and the situation was further complicated by a pattern of organisation in which pupils spent alternate weeks in classrooms and in trade departments. This arrangement adversely affected the continuity of learning, particularly in the basic subjects and on the practical side, in that boys would often leave a job incomplete to find on return that someone else had finished it. A further complication was the allocation of boys to domestic duties which on certain days substantially reduced the time they might have spent in the classroom.

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CHEs varied considerably in the use they made of their own environments and of pupil's experience outside school hours. One establishment made extensive use of its immediate outdoor environment as a starting point for work in art, social studies and nature study. In addition much of the work of an afternoon programme of options took place in the grounds of the CHE; for instance, setting out a nature trail for local primary schools, constructing a concrete practice wicket, and general constructional improvement to the site and facilities. In contrast another establishment appeared to make no use of experiences outside school hours or of activities arising from the immediate outdoor environment. The consequences of not making use of the pupils' own experiences and the environmental resources surrounding the establishments were that learning experiences tended to rely too heavily on text book and work sheet exercises, often about events unrelated to the life or interests of the boys and girls.

Because of the special need to provide moral care and protection for adolescent girls, they may be particularly liable to suffer by reason of restrictions on activities outside the schools.

It became clear during the survey that the teachers needed to meet regularly to discuss the curriculum, and that more imaginative use of the environment, coupled with a willingness to cross subject boundaries and to relate classroom work more closely with practical activities, was required to help to meet the individual needs of their pupils. Such curriculum planning will not happen unless it is scheduled and encouraged, and the Head of Education ought to ensure that the teachers have the opportunity to discuss curriculum matters.

Individual subjects

Language and literacy

In only a third of the CHEs were there successful attempts to extend the language experience of pupils across a broad range. In many CHEs there were few attempts to encourage personal writing; written skills were often narrowly based on comprehension exercises demanding one word insertions in the answer. In one CHE, a CSE course in English had provided a good stimulus for the pupils. The work was imaginatively presented to encourage the involvement of pupils in recording, summarising, expressing opinions and feelings, narrating and contributing to group enquiries; this had resulted in substantial and well presented written work.

Although there were numerous examples of pupils being encouraged to read newspapers, magazines, periodicals and story books, the quantity and quality of this provision was generally inadequate despite the help received in many CHEs from the county libraries. In general the emphasis was more on responding to work books and assignment cards than on using direct experiences as starting points for both discussion and written work. Commercially produced work books, assignment cards and graded reading schemes were aJl seen in use, sometimes supported by teacher-produced materials such as project work sheets and assignment cards. It is interesting to note that the quality of discussion was often richer in pupils' recreative time than in the regular teaching periods, though there were some examples of sustained oral work in classrooms which had led to written work. In general there was little evidence that any use was made in language teaching of the experience gained in practical departments.

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In an apparent attempt to remedy the pupils' lack of computational skills, most of the CHEs over emphasised mechanical work and hardly tried to relate mathematics to everyday experience. There was generally a lack of mathematical equipment, with the exception of text books, work cards and specimen examination papers. Much of the work observed consisted of repetitive exercises concerned with the four rules, with minimal application to the solution of problems, and most of it was done straight onto worksheets: those who finished early were given more of the same diet.

There was, however, evidence of broader mathematical thinking in some CHEs. For example, in one establishment graphs and statistical charts were used for a variety of purposes including nature study, building and health education. In another CHE models and scale drawings were used extensively in the building department but there was little evidence of their use in formal mathematics lessons. Some practical mathematics was involved in the work seen in the trade departments of one CHE but little attempt was made to use this as a means of motivating pupils to a greater interest in mathematics or in order to underline its relevance to the world of work.

There were few examples of well planned mathematics courses based on appropriate resources. It is, however, interesting to note how the staff in one CHE seized every opportunity to extend and apply mathematical thinking to practical activities such as the budgeting of the home economics course, the arithmetic involved in a City and Guilds Engineering foundation course, and the issues involving money in a leavers' course.


Approximately half the CHEs had no substantial science course, and a number of others taught only a minimal element, partly because of the lack of facilities and partly because of a shortage of qualified teachers in this field. Despite the lack of adequate resources, a number of CHEs were attempting to include some science teaching by linking with other areas of the curriculum. For example, in one CHE an environmental studies course linked with the construction of a nature trail was providing a range of experience from which pupils acquired a knowledge of the characteristics of living things and learned to care for and respect them. In one girls' CHE the science teaching was restricted to biology in a general classroom without a microscope or even a hand lens for closer examination, yet the nature and standard of the work were what might be expected in a CSE Mode I examination.

The setting of some CHEs in agricultural environments enabled rural science courses to be developed. One such course, taken to CSE level, was well taught and provided a range of studies, including the collection and study of fossils in their historical context, the study of insects through their stages of development, the making of microscope slides to examine plant and animal cells, and the study of animal pests. In addition pupils were encouraged to initiate projects and follow them through to a conclusion. Examples observed included the germination of seeds in aerated water, hatching chickens' eggs, experiments on the immunity of aphids to insecticides, and studies of the reproduction of mice.

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Only one CHE provided O-level GCE courses (in biology and physics). In this CHE the specialist teacher was engaged in developing an environmental studies course, in cooperation with the teachers of geography and social studies, to be taken as a CSE Mode III examination. Another CHE had established the Nuffield combined science course in a form suitably modified to match the abilities of the pupils. Motivation among pupils taking examination courses appeared to be high and the output and quality of presentation of written work were often commendable.

Art and craft

The work undertaken in most of the girls' CHEs was undemanding and limited to drawing and painting, with an emphasis on copying from books and pictures. One CHE had facilities for pottery, including a wheel and a kiln, but the activity had not been developed.

The range of work in about three quarters of the boys' CHEs, too, was very restricted and the quality was generally of a low standard. Little attention was given to display or to providing any stimulus from natural or man-made objects. Materials in these CHEs did not extend much beyond those required for drawing and painting.

There was a marked difference in the work seen in the remaining quarter of the boys' CHEs. Here, the use of a wide selection of materials, including clay, wood and metal as well as paints and crayons was encouraged. In one CHE an art/craft trained teacher organised what was termed the project department. His approach was based on the belief that pupils could be helped to develop self respect and a sense of worthwhileness from the successful handling of materials. Early and spectacular success was deemed to be important and, to achieve this, large scale murals were painted on outside walls by groups of boys. The gymnasium had also been decorated with vivid paintings.

Much of the work seen in the trade departments of boys' CHEs was functional and often related to the improvement of the facilities of the establishment, but an important part of this educational experience was that boys spent time working alongside teachers who were themselves good craftsmen. In a small number of the boys' CHEs the quality of the work achieved in these areas was an outstanding feature. One fine example to be seen was a bungalow complex, containing a well equipped art room, which was constructed by the pupils under the supervision of a craftsman who taught building and woodwork.

There were few examples of pupils visiting art galleries, exhibitions or museums to stimulate their interests, nor were there many visiting artists or craftsmen. In one CHE considerable understanding was shown in developing themes deriving from the boys' interests although unfortunately this did not result in the achievements of high standards in anyone of the media used.

Social education

Although the development of social competence and social skills was frequently claimed to be part of the underlying philosophy of many CHEs, the incidence of such programmes was disappointingly small. Few

[page 17]

opportunities appeared to be taken to help pupils examine the causes and consequences of their behaviour nor was there any systematic attempt to initiate discussion about social issues, life skills or personal responsibility in the social context. Efforts to promote inter-personal relationships and to develop self-awareness were infrequently met. There are, of course, inherent difficulties in providing a full social education programme in predominantly single sex establishments.

However, the work in environmental/social studies in one CHE made a valuable contribution to the development of an awareness of and a sense of responsibility to the natural environment. This was highlighted in another CHE where it was the practice in the horticultural department for each boy to have an individual plot of land.

Sometimes the very nature of the CHE's regime prevented pupils from learning the skills of responsibility through practice. The staff said that constant supervision was necessary in view of the danger of pupils' absconding.

The provision of hostel accommodation, in one girls' CHE, for girls going out to work or to further education enabled life skills to be tackled in a realistic way; though in many CHEs insufficient attention was given to older pupils in helping them to develop an understanding of adult responsibilities during their work. There did not appear to be an agreed coordinated kernel of experience of life skills in most CHEs for all the pupils at various levels of maturity, either for those who would return to normaJ school or for those who would go directly to work, nor was there any concentration on the respective - and differing - needs of these two groups. Frequently the 'work experience' in such areas as farming, building and crafts was insufficiently linked to the educational programme.

One CHE had established a three months leavers' course for all boys within the six months period before they left, in an imaginative attempt to equip the boys to meet new responsibilities on leaving school. The teacher provided a wide range of material, ranging from the information needed to understand income tax returns to opinion polls on such issues as equality of the sexes and the use of birth control.

Physical education

Most of the CHEs visited had sufficient resources for physical education in terms of a suitable indoor space, adequate playing fields and staff qualified in the subject. Maintenance of indoor floor surfaces and equipment was sometimes neglected and arrangements were seldom made for the regular inspection and repair of gymnastic apparatus. The programmes of work were often varied and included elements of gymnastics, individual and team games, athletics and swimming. More could have been done, however, to improve the level of individual skill and to capitalise on opportunities for social and emotional development. Expressive work in dance was usually neglected in programmes for both girls and boys. In the best of the work seen in the boys' CHEs there was the possibility of progression through regular, planned teaching and through an excellent system of clubs. Competition was not overdone and work was planned with the purpose of helping a boy to develop competence and confidence in his own abilities. Often there was a concern for fitness, some boys being

[page 18]

motivated to give up smoking in a desire to improve their stamina. This contrasts with the attitude found in one CHE where boys were reminded to collect their tobacco at the end of the physical education lesson. While there were unfortunate exceptions, the work seen in most CHEs indicated that physical education was being offered on a sound basis and constituted a strength in the curriculum. Good relationships were being developed from the involvement of teachers and care staff in the games coaching and voluntary activities. To assist development there could often be closer links with the local education authority in order to benefit from general advice about equipment and from in-service training opportunities.

Outdoor education

HMI comments on outdoor education often referred to it as being' a strong feature' or 'well developed'. The range of work varied from basic camping instruction in the grounds to a full range of outdoor pursuits including canoeing, sailing, mountain walking, lightweight expeditions, orienteering, pony-trekking, coastal and deep sea fishing. Not all CHEs had thought out aims and objectives in terms of personal and social development, and outdoor work was seldom used to influence classroom work other than in geography and some personal writing. Several members of staff held the appropriate qualifications of the national governing bodies for outdoor pursuits but invariably it was the headmaster who took responsibility for assessing the competence and experience of staff to lead parties and for approving expedition plans. Appropriate publications regarding safety were rarely available for reference purposes.

Considerable responsibility fell to members of staff to see that the equipment used was in good order and of appropriate quality and quantity. Several CHEs offered the chance to participate in the Duke of Edinburgh A ward Scheme but others preferred to plan their own adventure programme. One offered a progressive range of opportunities on site which led on to two one-week residential experiences for each boy to be chosen from the following:

Dewerstone Adventure Camp, Dartmoor (three camps a year)
Mountain Camp, Brecon
Pony Camp, Lyndhurst (three camps a year)
Fishing Camp, River Nene
Mountain Camp, Pennine Way
Deep Sea Fishing Trip (two trips a year)
The headmaster saw the programme of outdoor education as an opportunity to bring boys into contact with experts, as activity which could lead to better personal relationships, and as adventure to add spice to the other opportunities provided by the school.

Remedial work

The number of pupils requiring remedial help varied considerably, from a handful of pupils in one CHE to two extreme cases where all the pupils were said by the staff to require specific remedial teaching. In most cases pupils were allocated to remedial groups on the basis of their scores on reading

[page 19]

tests, the usual criterion for providing specific help being thai a pupil was at least two years behind his chronological age in reading attainment.

The tests used by Observation and Assessment Centres and the CHEs were usually a word recognition test, a reading comprehension test, a spelling test and a computational arithmetic text. There was little evidence in the CHEs of professional attempts to diagnose individual needs or identify specific learning difficulties, although in one CHE an educational psychologist was available to give further tests if a more refined diagnosis was required. Sometimes a pupil's level of maturity, as well as his low attainment, was considered when placing him in a remedial group. In one CHE remedial reading help was given entirely on a one-to-one withdrawal basis.

The development of language and reading relied heavily on the use of primary readers and materials prepared for much younger children, and very few attempts appeared to be made to relate remedial work to experience outside the classroom or to other areas of the curriculum. Insufficient attention appeared to be given to the development of spoken language.

Only a very small number of teachers had both experience and expertise in remedial education. Where this was the case the resources were being developed appropriately and results were encouraging. Most CHEs were conscious of the need to ensure thai pupils could read at a basic level before they left the establishment.

Other subjects or study

Some CHEs were able to offer additional subjects of study, either because there were members of staff with a particular expertise or because the facilities were available or had been converted for a specific use. The areas of study included motor maintenance, home economics for both boys and girls, typing, horsemanship, farming and horticulture as well as the traditional subjects of history and geography.

Interesting and purposeful work was observed in one girls' CHE where a choice from cookery, housecraft, hygiene, needlework and human biology was offered by a specialist teacher of home economics. Another girls' CHE provided a useful though limited cookery course. In one of the boys' CHEs part of an old stable block had been converted into an attractive kitchen area and cookery teaching was being developed in a commendable way.

Typing was available in three of the girls' CHEs. In one, it was a compulsory subject in which the girls worked towards examinations and were introduced to audio-typing. An unusual recent development in a boys' CHE was a CSE course in horsemanship which was proving to be a stimulating though demanding area of study. Staff were already beginning to exploit the boys' interest by linking horsemanship with other aspects of the curriculum, especially rural science.

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11 Examinations and record-keeping


About half of the CHEs had examination courses of one kind or another. One CHE was particularly successful in developing a City and Guilds foundation course in engineering, while others had developed their own CSE Mode III courses in such subjects as brickwork, painting and decorating, horticulture, typing, cookery and needlework and, uniquely, horsemanship. Although one CHE provided no examination courses, arrangements were made for a small number of pupils to attend a local school for CSE courses in English, mathematics and history. Conversely, in another CHE no arrangements had been made for pupils who had been following CSE courses at school to complete the courses and take the examinations.


There was much variation in the kinds of records kept. Only a small number of CHEs could be said to have developed a comprehensive and well documented system.

A card index system was operated for each class in one CHE on which was recorded a pupil's age and six-monthly scored IQ, Reading Age (Basic Word Recognition, Schonell), Comprehension (Vernon), Arithmetic Age (Schonell). These were used as a basis for class changes and as a measure of educational progress when reviewing a pupil's future release from or retention in the establishment. Many teachers kept their own records of pupils' attainments and test scores but often there was insufficient detail recorded to be of use when planning programmes.

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12 Conclusions and recommendations


It is undeniable that the task of providing education in CHEs is an extremely difficult one. A pupil may be admitted, and discharged, at any time regardless of the effect on his/her educational progress. Length of stay cannot be predicted with any accuracy but is seldom long enough to permit a sustained course to be completed. Pupils may be at any level of ability , though almost all are under-achievers in education. Most of them may be regarded as 'disturbed and disturbing' children. Both admission and discharge are marked by discontinuity in family and living arrangements as well as in education.

The institutions in which pupils live and learn are small. The size factor operates differentially, however, for while the group for living is usually much larger than the average family, the total group for education is very much smaller than is normal in the public system of education. Because of this, the range and volume of resources, both human and material, are frequently much more restricted than in ordinary schools. In some cases, too, resources that are available - for example in the environment of the institution - may not be as usable as they would be if it were an ordinary school, because of the particular needs the CHE exists to serve.

Finally, because the CHE is not pan of the normal education system, it provides an education isolated from general educational practice, as well as from educational support services in the locality.

Not surprisingly under these conditions, the education provided in CHEs is frequently at fairly low overall standards, in spite of the commitment of many of the teachers. A radical reappraisal of assessment procedures, of methods, and of the curriculum as a whole is required. It is possible that some of the improvements can be made only if a new relationship between the provision of education in CHEs and the LEAs can be worked out.

One of the key areas in which a new approach may be particularly profitable is in the management of education within the CHE. For many CHEs this would necessitate a re-examination of the role of the Deputy Principal in charge of education. In Appendix 3 is set out a paper intended to promote local discussion of the responsibilities of such a post. It was in fact originally prepared by HMI for such a purpose.

The need for a staff development programme in all CHEs is evident, and this requires a continuing programme of in-service training to be available for aU the teachers. A number of teachers in their first year of teaching are employed in CHEs, apparently because of a shortage of the more experienced applicants whom many Principals would prefer. Such inexperienced teachers have particular need of help in their induction to teaching.

Although this section of the report does not attempt to detail all the matters on which action is required, or which could be helpful, one other area of development may be singled out as of special importance. This is the need to provide within the system of care and education a programme of guidance and social education for adult responsibilities. Such an approach would include health and sex education as well as careers work, and would

[page 22]

be differentiated according to whether pupils would be returning to school, Of seeking employment, on discharge from the CHE. Here again staff development would usually be required before such a programme could be mounted.

Detailed conclusions and recommendations

1. The fact that such a high proportion of CHEs did not receive support from LEA advisory services suggests that a study should be made to see what steps might be taken to improve the situation. Such a suggestion would have to be considered in the context of any action proposed as a result of the Warnock Report.

2. Few of the CHEs had formed effective links with the ordinary schools in their localities. Closer and more positive contacts should be encouraged and, of course, this applies particularly when pupils are expected to leave the CHE before they reach school leaving age. Teachers from CHEs should be involved in liaison with schools which pupils are expected to attend and should be prepared to offer support in the initial stages of attendance.

3. A much closer working relationship between teachers and residential care staff is needed if pupils are to be effectively helped to understand and come to terms with their own situations. The rules within the establishment (for example, on pupils' smoking) should be applied consistently and should reflect a united approach by both care and teaching staff.

4. The high quality of leadership displayed by the heads of education in some CHEs is acknowledged. In many CHEs, however, a new approach is required to the management of education, and this should involve a reexamination of the role of the Deputy Head (Education), see Appendix 3. All heads of education should be encouraged to take on a reasonable teaching commitment and should endeavour to maintain daily contact with the progress of all the pupils.

5. The majority of teaching staff in CHEs could be commended for their dedication to the difficult task they have undertaken. The level of staffing should however take account of the varying needs of pupils for whom individual and small group tuition is frequently required.

6. Teachers newly entering this field should receive training in the general management of difficult pupils. This training should be based on practical as well as on theoretical considerations, devised with appropriate professional advice and help, and supported by the head of the establishment and the training officer of the social services department.

7. Staffing levels should be sufficient to allow teachers to attend case conferences in order that they may make oraJ contributions in addition to their written reports.

8. The practice of teachers assisting with residential duties has long been established and undoubtedly plays a part in helping teachers understand pupils' problems and in enriching the overall provision, but it should not be so onerous as to leave insufficient time for professional matters. The

[page 23]

inspections have highlighted, for instance, a clear need for teachers to meet regularly to discuss and reformulate the curriculum to meet the individual needs of the pupils.

9. Teachers working in CHEs should be aware of the need to motivate pupils, many of whom have rejected normal schooling. It is not easy to do this, but lively teaching and careful planning of methods and approaches are essential factors. In many CHEs two particular circumstances reduced the possibility of such planned and lively developments:

i. the curriculum was more fragmented than it need be; there were few examples of links between subjects and there was a tendency, particularly in English and mathematics, for the teaching to be in isolation;

ii. there was often a rigid distinction between the work in classrooms and that in practical departments which militated against cooperative efforts to meet pupils' individual needs.

Consideration should be given to establishing closer links between practical departments and the work in classrooms, especially the basic work in communication and mathematics.

10. Because of its obvious relevance to the pupils, careers education should be an important and integral part of the curriculum in order to provide a firm basis on which future career decisions can be made in conjunction with local authority careers officers.

11. In all CHEs there should be a programme of guidance and social education to prepare pupils either for a return to school or for adult life after leaving school. The establishment of a counselling role for both care staff and teachers, which at present appears to exist in only a minority of CHEs, will help in the provision of such a programme.

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Appendix 1

Table 1 Accommodation, pupils and staff

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Table 2 Subjects stated to be in the curriculum

[page 26]

Table 3 Teaching staff

vii. Main previous experience

a. Teaching

Primary teaching19
Secondary teaching91
Independent school teaching7
Teaching in FE establishments5
Teaching in other CHE establishments7
Teaching in outdoor activities centre1
Teaching in special school2

[page 27]

Teaching in dance school1
Supply teaching1
Teaching overseas1
Teaching in assessment centre3
Teaching in remand home1

b. Other employment

Child care1
Teacher training1
None stated7

viii. Main subject of qualification

Physical education33
Home economics9
Primary phase8
Religious education5
Special education2
Metal work/Engineering2
Remedial teaching1
Behavioural science1

This is included to indicate the general trend of subject qualification: where second subjects were stated, these have not been included.

When, however, CHEs are compared in respect of ALL the subjects of qualification of their teachers/instructors, it is clear that some are much more favourably placed than others.

For example, one CHE had nine full-time teachers and instructors, of whom four

[page 28]

were qualified teachers, two were unqualified, and three were instructors. Their subjects of qualification were PE (3), Geography (2), History (1), Mathematics (1), Music (1), Religious Education (1), Rural Studies (1), Engineering (1), Woodwork (1). Technical Drawing (1), Brickwork/General Building (1).

By contrast, another CHE of about the same size had a staff of eleven full-time and three part-time teachers, all qualified, who combined expertise in the following subjects: English (4), Mathematics (2), General Subjects (3), History (1), Geography (3), French (1), Music (1), Sociology (1), PE (1), Woodwork (2). Craft (1). Rural Studies (1), Building (1), Painting and Decorating (1), Art (1), Domestic Science (1). In addition the Principal could offer Science and Maths.

ix. Subject recorded as first specialist subject being taught in present post

General subjects49
Physical education18
Remedial subjects14
Home economics7
Metal work/engineering4
Religious education4
No subject specified4
Rural science3
Social studies2
Child care2

Table 4 Length of stay of pupils in CHE

Table 5 Length of teaching day

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Table 6 Pupil teacher ratio

Table 7 Size of the teaching groups

Table 8 Age range of the teaching groups

Table 9 Number of sending authorities

These [Tables 7 and 8] operate together, so that, for example, a group was recorded of 15 pupils aged 12-15 years; another had 14 pupils aged 11-15 years. The group recorded in Table 7 as the largest consisted of 18 pupils aged 15-16 years. The group in Table 8 with the largest age range (12.4 to 16.3) varied in size between 5 and 14 pupils.

*Found by taking the unweighted arithmetic average of the individual averages for the 21 CHEs.

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Table 10 Audio visual equipment

Most CHEs were in possession of a wide range of audio-visual equipment. In addition to the items mentioned below some CHEs reported that they had the use of video cassette recorders (mentioned 5 times), language masters, and photographic equipment.

In the 21 CHEs visited, the availability of equipment was stated to be as follows:

Table 11 Courses attended

Teachers were invited to complete anonymously a form recording their attendance at courses in the last five years. Of the 196 teachers and instructors, 140 did so. Thirty-four stated that they had attended no lectures or courses in the period.

Attendances recorded from the 140 returns

One lecture only21
Several lectures on separate days112
Single whole-day course62
More than one day, less than eleven70
More than ten days, less than one term19
One term or more40


More opportunities needed. (Many returns)
Easier secondment.
Better publicity for courses.
More school-based conferences.
More visits to other institutions.
More one-week courses.
More technical courses.
More child-care courses.
More time for study.
More opportunities to meet others.
Help in avoiding stagnation.

Suggestions for type of course

Courses on care and control.
Courses on remedial work.
Courses on counselling.
Courses on diagnostic testing.
Courses on health education.
Courses on curriculum development.
Courses on RE.

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Quotations and notes from returns

"If it were not for my personal interest in the building trades I could just stagnate for the want of refresher courses and that is good for no-one".

"Try to make the Social Services who employ us aware of their responsibility towards financing our in-service training. We have a low priority - so low in fact that people tend to stop applying for courses after so many refusals [to second). The reason given for refusal is that teachers are already trained whereas care staff are often not".

In one CHE only three out of ten members of staff had attended any courses at all in the past five years and this was just a one-day course at the local College of Technology on 'Safety in the use of abrasive wheels'. All three attended the same course. Only two had any suggestions to make about future in-service courses:

i. a short intensive course on modem techniques of wood turning - to keep up to date with timber and machinery,

ii. any course to consider up to date methods of education.

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Appendix 2 Timetables

Girls' CHE Timetable

[page 33]

Boys' CHE Timetable

[page 34]

Appendix 3 Community homes with education - education management

Paper prepared by HMI to promote discussion which might assist in the preparation of a job specification.

Outline of possible responsibilities of a deputy head (education)

1. Identify the general learning needs of the young people admitted, in particular taking into account:

needs for remedial work to promote numeracy and literacy
preparation for return to a comprehensive school
preparation for leaving at 16+ to employment/unemployment
history of school attendance and performance
general social/educational needs, taking full account of personal background, including reasons for being in care.
2. Consider, with the head and deputy head (care) and in consultation with aJl the staff, how to ensure a unity of philosophy between the educational provision and the care provision and to promote a concerted approach to such matters as staff attitudes, relationships, control mechanisms, and sanctions, in order that the overall aims of the Community Home may be achieved.

3. Formulate, in partnership with the teaching staff, and in consultation with the care staff, a general curriculum relevant to the needs identified above, stating priorities. Such a curriculum should include:

language and communication skills, especially oral communication with peers and adults.
mathematics and science.
environmental and social studies.
creative activities - music, art, drama, etc.
moral and ethical studies - religious education, personal/social development.
practical skills - PE, craft, vocationally directed work.
Personal and social development are likely to be very important, in particular for older children, and will include preparation for adult responsibilities, health and careers education, and what are currently described as 'life and social skills'. These involve developing self-awareness through reflection, sensitivity to others and an increasing part in decision-taking.

4. Devise with the Deputy Head (care) a procedure for preparing a development programme for each individual child, integrating the contributions of the care and teaching staff. This will take account of the

[page 35]

curriculum areas in (3) in order that the care staff can help to consolidate the learning of the individual child in the classroom.

5. Establish with the teaching staff individualised learning approaches, allocating responsibility for reviewing each young person's educational progress, and provide a framework for analysing this progress in a way which can be used to determine future learning needs, which will be helpful to other teaching and care staff, and which will aid decision-taking and lead to future action.

These approaches will allow for induction/assessment; consolidation; and preparation for release.

6. Develop appropriate teaching approaches to interpret this overall curriculum and to provide learning opportunities in acceptable forms. For these children the method of teaching is probably more important than the content. Motivation through perceived relevance is a key factor, especially vocational relevance. Thus textbooks must be appropriate in terms of cultural background as well as reading age. Integrated studies and project work which maximises success are likely to be preferable to conventional subject approaches. English literature can provide a suitable starting point for exploring feelings and attitudes and for social studies, given the necessary teaching skills. A variety of teaching styles, including small group work, is required if the full range of learning needs is to be covered. Counselling skills are also appropriate, with opportunity to practise them.

7. Plan personal support and in-service training to assist the staff to develop the attitudes, skills and confidence necessary to use these methods. It is recognised that some staff require considerable help to develop the desirable range of teaching styles, and the ability to recognise when to relax 'control' structures. Such staff development requires considerable advisory input, making full use of LEA experience and resources, including teachers' centres and colleges of education. Full use should be made of staff experience for mutual support and training, including that of the care staff.

Access to a wide selection of teaching materials is essential (textbooks, learning kits, audio-visual aids) with professional advice as to their suitability for different children and different purposes.

8. Negotiate the teaching accommodation and other resources necessary to implement the desired programme, being aware of the importance of the total physical environment. This will include the utilisation of appropriate youth and community resources, eg Duke of Edinburgh's Award Scheme, to supplement the main educational provision.

9. Establish review procedures for the evaluation of individual progress, teaching methods and the 'hidden curriculum', with provision for continuous adjustment as necessary.

10. Provide such communication channels with the care side that the education provision is fully integrated with the total provision of the community home and designed to support the work of the care staff.

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11. Ensure, as far as is possible, effective links with:

Observation and Assessment Centres, so as to be able to interpret their assessment of individuals.

Social Workers, and through them future schools/careers officers, as appropriate. It is necessary for the individual's educational achievement to· be described in a form understood by the recipient and appropriate as a basis for future action.

LEA advisers and teachers' centres, in order to make full use of relevant LEA experience, in particular with remedial and disruptive pupil units, and with special education.

This list may help in the identification of the personal skills required in educational management within the CHE, and in suggesting the action which should be taken to develop these skills.